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The mainland was governed as Tanganyika, with the Zanzibar Archipelago remaining a separate colonial jurisdiction.
Following their respective independence in 19, the two entities merged in April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanzania.
To the north and west lie Lake Victoria, Africa's largest lake, and Lake Tanganyika, the continent's deepest lake, known for its unique species of fish.
The eastern shore is hot and humid, with the Zanzibar Archipelago just offshore.
TANU's main objective was to achieve national sovereignty for Tanganyika.
A campaign to register new members was launched, and within a year, TANU had become the leading political organisation in the country.
They brought with them the west African planting tradition and the primary staple of yams.
They subsequently migrated out of these regions across the rest of Tanzania between 2,300 and 1,700 years ago.
The United Nations estimated Tanzania's 2016 population at 55.57 million.
The Nyamwezi slave traders operated under the leadership of Msiri and Mirambo.